Dr Andrew Brown

Senior Lecturer in Medical Education & Rheumatology, Academic Lead for Learning Environment

Andy is Senior Lecturer in Medical Education & Rheumatology and Academic Lead for the Learning Environment at HYMS. He is also a Consultant Rheumatologist at York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

Andy joined HYMS in May 2008 as Senior Lecturer in Medical Education and Rheumatology. He is also a Consultant Rheumatologist at York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. 

He studied Medicine at the University of Leeds. During his subsequent clinical and academic career he has combined his particular interests in medical education, clinical rheumatology, musculoskeletal imaging and research.

Previously a Clinical Lecturer at the University of Leeds, Andy’s background includes the award of an Educational Research Fellowship, theoretical and practical skills in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education, expertise in musculoskeletal imaging particularly ultrasonography and academic and clinical training in Rheumatology.

He has relevant postgraduate qualifications in medical education and rheumatology including a PhD in medical education and musculoskeletal imaging.

He has ongoing research interests in various aspects of teaching, learning and assessment, particularly curriculum development including the use of technology to enhance learning, as well as the application of imaging techniques in the assessment of rheumatological disease. This is supported by a portfolio of peer-reviewed publications and national and international presentations in these areas. 
Andy has developed a number of research interests in areas of curriculum development, teaching and assessment methodologies including the use of technology to enhance learning.

In particular, he has led the development of a programme of education in ultrasonography for rheumatologists and has a leading role in implementing this at a regional and national level.

He leads and supervises various Masters and Doctorate level research projects and students within the HYMS Centre for Educational Development.

Andy also continues to pursue research activities in his clinical specialty of Rheumatology including disease activity and remission assessment in inflammatory arthritis and applying imaging techniques to optimise clinical evaluation and improve our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of musculoskeletal disease.

He is involved with colleagues at York Teaching Hospital in developing a portfolio of active rheumatology research including ongoing studies from the CLRN portfolio.
Saleem B, Brown AK, Quinn M, Karim Z, Hensor E, Conaghan PG, Peterfy CG, Wakefield RJ, Emery P.  Can flare be predicted in DMARD treated RA patients in remission and is it important? A cohort study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012; 71:1316-21.

Bejarano V, Hensor E, Green MJ, Haugeberg G, Brown AK, Buch MH, Emery P, Conaghan PG.The relationship between early bone mineral density changes and long term function and radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012; 64: 66-70. DOI: 10.1002/acr.20553.

Metcalfe NH and Brown AK. History of Medicine student selected components at UK medical schools: a questionnaire-based study. JRSM Short Rep 2011; 2:77. DOI 10.1258/shorts.2011.011077.

Gandjbakhch F, Conaghan PG, Ejbjerg B, Haavardsholm E, Foltz V, Brown AK, Døhn UM, Lassere M, Freeston J, Bøyesen P, Bird P, Fautrel B, Hetland ML, Emery P, Bourgeois P, Hørslev-Petersen K, Kvien T, McQueen F, Østergaard M. Synovitis and osteitis are very frequent in rheumatoid arthritis clinical remission: Results from a MRI study of 294 patients in clinical remission or low disease activity state.J Rheumatol. 2011 Sep; 38(9): 2039-44.

Larché MJ, McDonald-Blumer H, Bruns A, Roth J, Khy V, de Brum-Fernandes AJ, Wakefield RJ, Brown AK, Bykerk V. Utility and feasibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSK US) in rheumatology practice in Canada: needs assessment. Clin Rheumatol. 2011 Oct; 30(10):1277-83. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Saleem B, Brown AK, Keen H, Nizam S, Freeston J, Wakefield R, Karim Z, Quinn M, Hensor E, Conaghan PG, Emery P. Should imaging be a component of RA remission criteria? A comparison between traditional and modified composite remission scores and imaging assessments. Ann Rheum Dis 2011; 70: 792-798.

Brown AK and Naredo E. Training and Education in Rheumatology US: Objectives and Challenges. In Essential Applications of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Rheumatology; Wakefield RJ and D’Agostino MA, Ed. Elsevier, 2010; first edition, pp 329-338.

Brown AK, Wakefield RJ, Schmidt WA. Imaging. In EULAR Compendium on Rheumatic Diseases Bijilsma JWJ, Ed. BMJ Publishing, 2009; first edition, pp. 651-668.

Brown AK. Using ultrasonography to facilitate best practice in diagnosis and management of RA. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2009. 5: 698-706.

Saleem B, Brown AK, Keen H, Nizam S, Freeston J, Karim Z, Quinn MA, Wakefield RJ, Hensor E, Conaghan PG, Emery P. Disease remission state in patients treated with the combination of tumour necrosis factor blockade and methotrexate or with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs: A clinical and imaging comparative study. Arthritis Rheum. 2009; 60: 1915-1922.

Kiely PDW, Brown AK, Edwards CJ, O’Reilly DT, Östör AJK, Quinn M, Taggart A, Taylor PC, Wakefield RJ, Conaghan PG. Contemporary treatment principles for early rheumatoid arthritis: a consensus statement. Rheumatology 2009; 48: 765-772.

Bejarano V, Conaghan PG, Proudman SM, Buch MH, Brown AK, Emery P. Long term efficacy and toxicity of ciclosporin A in combination with methotrexate in poor prognosis rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2009. 68(5):761-3.

Brown AK, Conaghan PG, Karim Z, Quinn MA, Ikeda K, Peterfy CG, Hensor E, Wakefield RJ, O’Connor PJ, and Emery P. An explanation for the apparent dissociation between clinical remission and continued structural deterioration in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58; 2958-67.

Freeston JE, Brown AK, Hensor EMA, Emery P, Conaghan PG. Extremity MRI assessment of synovitis (without contrast) in rheumatoid arthritis may be less accurate than power Doppler ultrasound. Ann Rheum Dis 2008; 67 1351.

Burgoyne CH, Field SL, Brown AK, Hensor EMA, English A, Bingham SL, Verburg R, Fearnon U, Lawson CA, Hamlin JP, StraszynskiE, Veale D, ConaghanPG, HullMA, VanLaarJM, TennantA, EmeryP, IsaacsJD and PonchelF. Abnormal T-cell differentiation persists in rheumatoid arthritis patients in clinical remission and predicts relapse. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008; 67: 750-757.

Brown AK, Roberts TE, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, Hensor E, O’Connor PJ, Emery P. The challenges of integrating ultrasonography into routine rheumatology practice: addressing the needs of clinical rheumatologists. Rheumatology 2007; 46: 821-829.

Brown AK, Roberts TE, O’Connor PJ, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, Emery P. The development of an evidence-based educational framework to facilitate the training of competent rheumatologist ultrasonographers. Rheumatology 2007; 46: 391-397.

Brown AK. Senior editor. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. Seventh Edition. Oxford University Press 2007. Chapter title: Rheumatology.

Karim ZA, Quinn MA, Wakefield RJ, Brown AK, Green MJ, Hensor EMA, Conaghan PG, and Emery P. Response to intramuscular methyl prednisolone in inflammatory hand pain: Evidence for a targeted clinical, ultrasonographic and therapeutic approach. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007; 66: 690-692.

Brown AK, Quinn MA, Karim Z, Conaghan PJ, Peterfy CG, Hensor E, Wakefield RJ, O’Connor PJ, and Emery P. Presence of significant synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-induced clinical remission: evidence from an imaging study may explain structural progression. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54(12): 3761-3773.

Brown AK. Remission in rheumatoid arthritis: time to reflect on methods of assessment.Int J Adv Rheumatol 2006; 4(3):84-89.

Brown AK, O’Connor PJ, Roberts TE, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z and Emery P. Ultrasonography for rheumatologists: the development of specific competency-based educational outcomes. Ann Rheum Dis 2006; 65: 629-636.

Lawson CA, Brown AK, Bejarano V, Douglas SH, BurgoyneCH, GreensteinAS, Boylston AW, Emery P, Ponchel F, Isaacs JD. Early rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a deficit in the CD4+CD25high regulatory T cell population in peripheral blood. Rheumatology 2006 45: 1210-1217.

Brown AK. COX2 inhibitors and cardiovascular controversy. Int J Adv Rheumatol 2005: 3(4); 16-18.

Brown AK, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, Roberts TE, O’Connor PJ, and Emery P. Evidence of effective and efficient teaching and learning strategies in the education of rheumatologist ultrasonographers: evaluation from the 3rd BSR musculoskeletal ultrasonography course. Rheumatology 2005; 44: 1068-1069.

Brown AK, O’Connor PJ, Roberts TE, Wakefield RJ, Karim Z, and Emery P. Recommendations for musculoskeletal ultrasonography by rheumatologists: setting global standards for best practice by expert consensus. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 53: 83-92.

Brown AK. Co-author and editor.Clinical Skills: An Oxford Core Text: Edited by Niall Cox and T A Roper. Oxford University Press 2005. Chapter title: Joints.  

Brown AK. Co-author. Arthritis Research: Methods and Protocols. Section: Synovial Joint Morphology, Histopathology and Immunohistochemistry. 2005. Chapter title: Review: Imaging inflamed synovial joints.  

Keen HI, Brown AK, Wakefield RJ and Conaghan PG. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography as diagnostic tools in early rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 2005; 31(4): 699-714.

Keen HI, Brown AK, Wakefield RJ, and Conaghan PG. Update on musculoskeletal ultrasonography. The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. November 2005.

Quinn MA, Conaghan PG, O’Connor PJ, Karim Z, Greenstein M, Brown AK, Brown C, Fraser A, Jarrett S and Emery P. Very early treatment with infliximab in addition to methotrexate in early poor prognosis rheumatoid arthritis reduces magnetic resonance imaging evidence of synovitis and damage, with sustained benefit after infliximab withdrawal: Results from a twelve-month randomized placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2005. 52: 27-35.

Wakefield RJ, Balint PV, Szkudlarek M, Filippucci E, Backhaus M, D'Agostino M-A, Naredo E, Iagnocco A, Schmidt WA, Bruyn G, Kane D, O'Connor PJ, Manger B, Joshua F, Koski J, Grassi W, Lassere MND, Swen N, Kainberger F, Klauser A, Ostergaard M, Brown AK, Machold KP and Conaghan PG. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Including Definitions For Ultrasonographic Pathology . J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 2485-7.

Brown AK, O’Connor PJ, Wakefield RJ, Roberts TE, Karim Z, and Emery P. Practice, training and assessment amongst experts performing musculoskeletal ultrasonography: Towards the development of an international consensus of educational standards for ultrasonography for rheumatologists. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 51: 1018-1022.

BrownAK, Wakefield RJ, ConaghanPG, KarimZ, O’ConnorPJ, and EmeryP. New approaches to imaging early inflammatory arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2004 Sep-Oct; 22 (5 Suppl 35): S18-25.

Brown AK, Clarke S, Coady D, Haq I. Educational Research Fellowships. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2004 May; 43(5): 543-6.

BrownAK. Sudden arthritis with rash. Int J Adv Rheumatol 2004; 2(2): 62-65.

Wakefield RJ, Brown AK, O’Connor PJ, Karim Z, Grainger Aand Emery P. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography: What is it and should training be compulsory for rheumatologists? Rheumatology 2004; 43: 821-822.

Karim Z, Brown AK, Quinn M, Wakefield RJ, Conaghan PG, Emery P, O’Connor PJ. Ultrasound-guided steroid injections in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. Arth Rheum 2004; 50: 338-340.

Ponchel F, Verburg RJ, Bingham SJ, Brown AK, Moore J, Protheroe A, Lawson C, Morgan AW, Quinn M, Field SL, Maltby SL, Masurel A, Douglas SH, Straszynski L, Fearon U, Short K, Veale DJ, Patel P, McGonagle D, Snowden J, Markham AF, Ma D, van Laar JM, Papadaki HA, Emery P, and Isaacs JD. Interleukin-7 deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis: Consequences for therapy-induced lymphopenia. Arthritis Res Ther 2005; 7(1): R80-92. Epub 2004 Nov16.

Wakefield RJ, Brown AK, O’Connor PJ and Emery P. Power Doppler sonography – improving disease activity assessment in inflammatory musculoskeletal disease. Arth Rheum 2003; 48: 285-288.

Wakefield RJ, Brown AK, O’Connor PJ, Grainger A, Karim Z, Emery P. Rheumatological ultrasound. Rheumatology 2003; 42: 1001.

Wakefield RJ, Kong KO, Conaghan PG, Brown AK, O’Connor PJ and Emery P. The role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2003; 21 (Suppl. 31): S42-S49.

Karim Z, Wakefield RJ, Quinn MA, Conaghan PG, Brown AK, Veale DJ, O’Connor PJ, Reece R and Emery P. Validation and reproducibility of ultrasonography in the detection of synovitis in the knee: A comparison with arthroscopy and clinical examination. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 387-394.

Tan AL, Tanner SF, Conaghan PG, Radjenovic A, O'Connor PJ, Brown AK, Emery P, McGonagle D. Role of metacarpophalangeal joint anatomic factors in the distribution of synovitis and bone erosion in early rheumatoid arthritis. Arth Rheum 2003; 48: 1214-1222.
Andy performs a number of teaching, assessment, management, research and development roles in HYMS, in addition to his clinical responsibilities.

Formerly a PBL Tutor and Clinical Skills Tutor, he is currently a Clinical Placement Tutor in phase I, delivers teaching in musculoskeletal and general medicine in phases I, II & III and conducts communication skills master-classes in phases ll & III. He leads Block 22 on Musculoskeletal Medicine and Rehabilitation. He is also an examiner at all stages of the undergraduate course as well as being a member of the various examinations and management committees. Andy also plays a key role in planning, evaluation and development of the curriculum and assessment processes and is the academic lead for OSCE assessment.

Andy leads HYMS involvement in the IVIMEDS project which has included development of e-learning resources in musculoskeletal medicine, integration of e-learning content and virtual patients into the undergraduate curriculum and evaluating their impact on learning as well as development of the ‘Riverside’ content authoring and packaging software.

He is a programme tutor and module leader on the HYMS Postgraduate Certificate in Medical Education.

Andy has recently been appointed Academic Lead for the Learning Environment at HYMS.
Andy is an external examiner for the University of Manchester Medical School.

He performs editorial and grant review work for several journals and academic groups in medical education and rheumatology.

He is a member of the British Society of Rheumatology Ultrasonography Specialist Interest Group.

Andy is a regional, national and international tutor in musculoskeletal ultrasonography.

Andy leads HYMS involvement in the IVIMEDS project which includes multinational collaborations in medical education with IVIMEDS partner medical schools.


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